Göttingen Septuagint (Genesis): Lexus of the LXX


The Wire Season 4


Man say if you wanna shoot nails, this here the Cadillac, man.
He mean Lexus, but he ain’t know it.

–Snoop to Chris, Season 4, Episode 1, The Wire


Having recently re-watched the fourth season of the best television show in history, I need now to amend my assessment two years ago that the Göttingen Septuagint is the Cadillac of Septuagint editions. It’s the Lexus of the LXX.


The Göttingen Septuagint


Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in Göttingen, Germany publishes the Göttingen Septuagint, more formally known as Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum.

The series of critical texts with apparatus spans more than 20 volumes and covers some 40 biblical books (counting the minor prophets as 12), with more continuing to appear.

But, as I remarked two years ago when I confused Cadillacs and Lexuses, the Göttingen Septuagint is not for the faint of heart, or for the reader who is unwilling to put some serious work in to understanding the layout of the edition and its critical apparatuses.


The Contributions of John William Wevers


Enter John William Wevers. If Göttingen is the Lexus of LXX editions, Wevers is its chief mechanic. His Notes on the Greek texts of the Pentateuch–though provisional in nature, Wevers intimated–remain some of the best resources for carefully studying the Septuagint. And his Text Histories on those same books (now free online, thanks to the Göttingen Septuaginta-Unternehmen) guide the reader through the transmission of the Greek text in its various manuscripts.

Better yet, before his passing Wevers translated much of his own Göttingen-Pentateuch introductions from German into English. That enduring gift can be found here.





Published in 1974, Wevers’s Genesis includes a 70+-page introduction, Wevers’s reconstructed Greek text of Genesis, and two critical apparatuses at the bottom of each page that highlight readings from various manuscripts.

The introduction includes these sections:

  1. The Textual Witnesses (Greek and other versions)
  2. The Text History (“Here only information necessary for the use of this edition is given”)
  3. Re: This Edition
  4. Signs and Abbreviations

A challenge to using the Genesis volume is the scarcity of material available about the Göttingen project in general. Further, the introduction is in German and the critical apparatuses contain Greek, abbreviated Greek, and abbreviated Latin. A few things come in handy:

  • Wevers’s Genesis introduction is here in English.
  • As for deciphering the apparatus and abbreviations, Wevers offers such a key in the introduction, and the print edition comes with a handy insert (in German and Latin, but not unusable to those without command of those languages)
  • Miles Van Pelt has made available his own two-page summary of sigla and abbreviations (here as PDF).
  • Seeing the need, I wrote a two-part primer (here and here, two of my most-visited posts on this blog) to reading and understanding the Göttingen Septuagint–the focus was largely on Genesis, and I draw on those posts for what follows

So equipped, the reader (whether she or he knows German or not) is ready to work through the Greek text itself.


Tour of a Page


Instead of using a text based on an actual manuscript (as BHS, based on the Leningrad Codex, does), the Göttingen Septuagint utilizes a reconstructed text based on a thorough examination of evidence from manuscripts and translations.

Because it is an editio maior and not an editio minor like Rahlfs, any page can have just a few lines of actual biblical text, with the rest being taken up by the apparatuses. Here’s a sample page from Genesis 1 (image used by permission).

Note the #s 1-4 that I’ve added to highlight the different parts of a page.


Page reproduction by permission of publisher (annotations are mine)


1. The reconstructed Greek critical text (“Der kritische Text”)

With verse references in both the margin and in the body of the text, the top portion of each page of the Göttingen Septuagint is the editorially reconstructed text of each biblical book. In the page from Genesis 1 above, you’ll notice that the text includes punctuation, accents, and breathing marks.

Regarding the critical text itself, Wevers writes in the Genesis introduction:

Since it must be presupposed that this text will be standard for a long time, the stance taken by the editor over against the critical text was intentionally conservative. In general conjectures were avoided, even though it might be expected that future recognition would possibly confirm such conjectures.


2. The Source List (“Kopfleiste”)


The Kopfleiste comes just below the text and above the apparatuses in Genesis. Wevers notes it as a list of all manuscripts and versions used, listed in the order that they appear in the apparatus on that page. A fragmentary textual witness is enclosed in parenthesis.


3. and 4. Critical Apparatuses (“Apparat I” and “Apparat II”)

The critical apparatuses are where the user of Göttingen can see other readings as they compare with the critically reconstructed text. Because the Göttingen editions are critical/eclectic texts, no single manuscript will match the text of the Göttingen Septuagint.

The first critical apparatus will be familiar in its aims to readers of BHS. Regarding the second apparatus, Wevers writes:

In view of the fact that the materials presented in the second apparatus [are] not at least in theory a collection of variants within the LXX tradition, but rather one such of readings from other traditions, especially from the “three”, which have influenced the LXX tradition, these readings are given in full.

“The three,” sometimes referred to in Greek as οι γ’, are the texts of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion.

In other words–there is virtually no stone unturned here in the quest to reconstruct a Greek text of Genesis.


Concluding Evaluation


Serious work in Septuagint studies uses the Göttingen text, where available, as a base. Wevers’s scholarship and care for the text is clear as one makes her or his way through the Genesis volume. It’s the starting place for studying the Greek text of Genesis.

Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht’s production of the book is stellar, too. It’s got a sewn binding and is beautifully constructed–built to last and look good on the shelf, or in your hands:


Goettingen Genesis


You can find the volume here at V & R’s site, and here at Amazon. ISD distributes the book, as well, and carries it here.


Many thanks to V & R for the review copy of this fine work, given to me with no expectation as to the content of my review. Find more V & R blog posts here.

The Bible’s Other* Hymnal

Psalms with OdesMany Greek Septuagint manuscripts do not contain them, but the Odes are a fascinating collection of texts appended to the end of the Greek Psalter in Codex Alexandrinus and a few other manuscripts.

The Odes compile some beautiful prayers from Scripture. A few of them are in the Book of Common Prayer’s Morning Prayer canticles.

Good information on the Odes is hard to come by, though. In part this is because they are generally not accorded the same status as, say, the Psalms. The NETS introduction to the Psalms, for instance, has:

One “book” not included in NETS, however, is Odes since it has dubious integrity as a literary unit, and, in any case, almost all of the individual Septuagint odes have already been included in their native setting in other books. The sole exception is Ode 12 in Rahlfs’ edition, the Prayer of Manasses, which for that reason has been separately appended to the Psalter.

I’ve just discovered, however, that David Lincicum has a nice rundown of the Odes, their numbering, and their contents. He also includes a bibliography for further reading. Check it out here.


*HT to a member of the Yahoo! LXX email group for the idea of the Odes as a sort of “little hymnal.”

Greek Isaiah in a Year: Rest of Readings in Facebook

Ottley Isaiah cover

From here on out, I’ll post the readings (each day) for Greek Isaiah in a Year in its Facebook group. We are up to chapter 60, and almost done.

The text will be, as usual, from R.R. Ottley’s Book of Isaiah According to the Septuagint (pictured above). Ottley is here in Logos (reviewed here) and here as a free, downloadable pdf in the public domain. The full reading plan for our group is here (pdf).

See here for more resources and links to texts for Greek Isaiah.

Greek Isaiah in a Year, Weeks 45 and 46 (Isaiah 55:7-Isaiah 58:9)


We are getting close to the end of Greek Isaiah in a Year. This week and next week cover Isaiah 55:7-Isaiah 58:9.

Below is the text from R.R. Ottley’s Book of Isaiah According to the Septuagint. Ottley is also here in Logos (reviewed here) and here as a free, downloadable pdf in the public domain. The full reading plan for our group is here (pdf).

See here for more resources and links to texts for Greek Isaiah.

Continue reading “Greek Isaiah in a Year, Weeks 45 and 46 (Isaiah 55:7-Isaiah 58:9)”

Greek Isaiah in a Year, Weeks 43 and 44 (Isaiah 52:1-Isaiah 55:6)

Prophet Isaiah

This past week and next week in Greek Isaiah in a Year cover Isaiah 52:1-Isaiah 55:6.

Below is the text from R.R. Ottley’s Book of Isaiah According to the Septuagint. Ottley is also here in Logos (reviewed here) and here as a free, downloadable pdf in the public domain. The full reading plan for our group is here (pdf).

See here for more resources and links to texts for Greek Isaiah.

Continue reading “Greek Isaiah in a Year, Weeks 43 and 44 (Isaiah 52:1-Isaiah 55:6)”

Greek Isaiah in a Year, Weeks 39 and 40 (Isa 47:1-49:11)

Isaiah prophet

This past week I was reminded why I’ve so much appreciated going through Isaiah slowly, just five or so verses a day. I wrote about a new observation I had (i.e., new to me) here.

This week and next week in Greek Isaiah in a Year will cover Isaiah 47:1-49:11. Here are the readings for each day:

08/26/13   Isa 47:1–5
08/27/13   Isa 47:6–10
08/28/13   Isa 47:11–15
08/29/13   Isa 48:1–5
08/30/13   Isa 48:6–11

09/02/13   Isa 48:12–16
09/03/13   Isa 48:17–22
09/04/13   Isa 49:1–3
09/05/13   Isa 49:4–7
09/06/13   Isa 49:8–11

Below is the text from R.R. Ottley’s Book of Isaiah According to the Septuagint, first in Greek, then with his English translation. Ottley is also here in Logos (reviewed here) and here as a free, downloadable pdf in the public domain. The full reading plan for our group is here (pdf).

See here for more resources and links to texts for Greek Isaiah.

47 1 Κατάβηθι, κάθισον ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, παρθένος θυγάτηρ Βαβυλῶνος· εἴσελθε εἰς τὸ σκότος, θυγάτηρ Χαλδσίων, ὅτι οὐκέτι προστεθήσῃ κληθῆναι ἁπαλὴ καὶ τρυφερά. 2 λάβε μύλον, ἄλεσον ἄλευρον, ἀποκάλυψαι τὸ κατακάλυμμά σου, ἀνακάλυψαι τὰς πολιάς, ἀνάσυραι τὰς κνήμας, διάβηθι ποταμούς. 3 ἀνακαλυφθήσεται ἡ αἰσχύνη σου, φανήσονται οἱ ὀνειδισμοί σου· τὸ δίκαιον ἐκ σοῦ λήμψομαι, οὐκέτι μὴ παραδῶ ἀνθρώποις· 4 εἶπεν ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε Κύριος σαβαώθ, ὄνομα αὐτῷ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ. 5 κάθισον κατανενυγμένη, εἴσελθε εἰς τὸ σκότος, θυγάτηρ Χαλδαίων, οὐκέτι μὴ κληθήσῃ ἰσχὺς βασιλείας.6 παρωξύνθην ἐπὶ τῷ λαῷ μου, ἐμίανας τὴν κληρονομίαν μου· ἐγὼ ἔδωκα εἰς τὴν χεῖρά σου, σὺ δὲ οὐκ ἔδωκας αὐτοῖς ἔλεος, τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου ἐβάρυνας τὸν ζυγὸν σφόδρα, 7 καὶ εἶπας Εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἔσομαι ἄρχουσα. οὐκ ἐνόησας ταῦτα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ, σου, οὐδὲ ἐμνήσθης τὰ ἔσχατα. 8 Νῦν δὲ ἄκουσον ταῦτα, ἡ τρυφερά, ἡ καθημένη, ἡ πεποιθυῖα, ἡ λέγουσα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ, αὐτῆς Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἑτέρα, οὐ καθιῶ χήρα οὐδὲ γνώσομαι ὀρφανείαν. 9 νῦν δὲ ἥξει ἐξέφνης τὰ δύο ταῦτα ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ, χηρία καὶ ἀτεκνία, ἥξει ἐξέφνης ἐπὶ σὲ ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου, ἐν τῇ ἰσχύι τῶν ἐπαοιδῶν σου σφόδρα, 10 τῇ ἐλπίδι τῆς πονηρίας σου· σὺ γὰρ εἶπας Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἑτέρα· γνῶθι ὅτι ἡ σύνεσις τούτων καὶ ἡ πορνεία σου ἔσται σοι αἰσχύνη· καὶ εἶπας τῇ καρδίᾳ σου Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἑτέρα. 11 καὶ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲ ἀπώλεια καὶ οὐ μὴ γνῷς, βόθυνος, καὶ ἐμπεσῇ εἰς αὐτόν· καὶ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲ ταλαιπωρία, καὶ οὐ μὴ δυνήσῃ καθαρὰ γενέσθαι· καὶ ἥξει ἐπὶ σὲ ἐξέφνης ἀπώλεια καὶ οὐ μὴ γνῷς. 12 στῆθι νῦν ἐν ταῖς ἐπαοιδαῖς σου καὶ ἐν τῇ πολλῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου, ἃ ἐμάνθανες ἐκ νεότητός σου, εἰ δυνήσει ὠφεληθῆναι. 13 κεκοπίακας ἐν ταῖς βουλαῖς σου· στήτωσαν καὶ σωσάτωσάν σε οἱ ἀστρολόγοι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, οἱ ὁρῶντες τοὺς ἀστέρας ἀναγγειλάτωσάν σοι τί μέλλει ἐπὶ σὲ ἔρχεσθαι. 14 ἰδοὺ πάντες ὡς φρύγανα ἐπὶ πυρὶ κατακαήσονται, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐξέλωνται τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτῶν ἐκ φλογός· ὅτι ἔχεις ἄνθρακας πυρός, κάθισαι ἐπʼ αὐτούς. 15 οὗτοι ἔσονταί σοι βοήθειᾶ ἐκοπίασας ἐν τῇ μεταβολῇ σου ἐκ νεότητος, ἄνθρωπος καθʼ ἑαυτὸν ἐπλανήθη· σοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔσται σωτηρία.

48 1 Ἀκούσατε ταῦτα, οἶκος Ἰακώβ, οἱ κεκλημένοι τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰσραὴλ καὶ οἱ ἐξ Ἰούδα ἐξελθόντες, οἱ ὀμνύοντες τῷ ὀνόματι Κυρίου θεοῦ Ἰσραήλ, μιμνησκόμενοι οὐ μετὰ ἀληθείας οὐδὲ μετὰ δικαιοσύνης, 2 καὶ ἀντεχόμενοι τῷ ὀνόματι τῆς πόλεως τῆς ἁγίας, καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἀντιστηριζόμενοι, Κύριος σαβαὼθ ὄνομα αὐτῷ. 3 τὰ πρότερα ἔτι ἀνήγγειλα, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματός μου ἐξῆλθεν καὶ ἀκουστὰ ἐγένετο· ἐξάπινα ἐποίησα, καὶ ἐπῆλθεν. 4 γινώσκω ἐγὼ ὅτι σκληρὸς εἶ, καὶ νεῦρον σιδηροῦν ὁ τράχηλός σου, καὶ τὸ μέτωπόν σου χαλκοῦν. 5 καὶ ἀνήγγειλά σοι τὰ πάλαι πρὶν ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ σέ· ἀκουστόν σοι ἐποίησα, μὴ εἴπῃς ὅτι Τὰ εἴδωλά μοι ἐποίησαν, καὶ <μὴ εἴπῃς> Τὰ γλυπτὰ καὶ τὰ χωνευτὰ ἐνετείλατό μοι. 6 ἠκούσατε πάντα, καὶ ὑμεῖς οὐκ ἔγνωτε· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀκουστά σοι ἐποίησα τὰ καινὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν ἃ μέλλει γίνεσθαι· καὶ οὐκ εἶπας 7 Νῦν γίνεται καὶ οὐ πάλαι, καὶ οὐ προτέραις ἤκουσας αὐτά· μὴ εἴπῃς ὅτι Ναί, γινώσκω αὐτά. 8 οὔτε ἔγνως οὔτε ἠπίστω, οὔτε ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς ἤνοιξα τὰ ὦτά σου· ἔγνων γὰρ ὅτι ἀθετῶν ἀθετήσεις, καὶ ἄνομος ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας κληθήσῃ. 9 ἕνεκν τοῦ ἐμοῦ ὀνόματος δείξω σοι τὸν θυμόν μου, καὶ τὰ ἔνδοξά μου ἐπάξω ἐπὶ σοί, ἵνα μὴ ἐξολεθρεύσω σε. 10 ἰδοὺ πέπρακά σε οὐχ ἕνεκεν ἀργυρίου· ἐξειλάμην δέ σε ἐκ καμίνου πτωχείας· 11 ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ ποιήσω σοι, ὅτι τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα βεβηλοῦται, καὶ τὴν δόξαν μου ἑτέρῳ οὐ δώσω. 12 Ἄκουέ μου, Ἰακώβ, καὶ Ἰσραὴλ ὃν ἐγὼ καλῶ· ἐγώ εἰμι πρῶτος, καὶ ἐγώ εἰμι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, 13 καὶ ἡ χείρ μου ἐθεμελίωσεν τὴν γῆν, καὶ ἡ δεξιά μου ἐστερέωσεν τὸν οὐρανόν· καλέσω αὐτούς, καὶ στήσονται ἅμα, 14 καὶ συναχθήσονται πάντες καὶ ἀκούσονται. τίς αὐτοῖς ἀνήγγειλεν ταῦτα; ἀγαπῶν σε ἐποίησα ταῦτα ἐπὶ Βαβυλῶνα, τὸ θέλημά σου, τοῦ ἆραι σπέρμα Χαλδαίων· 15 ἐγὼ ἐλάλησα, ἐγὼ ἐκάλεσα, ἤγαγον αὐτὸν καὶ εὐόδωσα τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτοῦ. 16 προσαγάγετε πρὸς μὲ καὶ ἀκούσατε ταῦτα, οὐκ ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς ἐν κρυφῇ ἐλάλησα, οὐδὲ ἐν τόπῳ γῆς σκοτινῷ· ἡνίκα ἐγένετο, ἐκεῖ ἤμην, καὶ νῦν Κύριος ἀπέσταλκέν με, καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ. 17 οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε ὁ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ, <Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεός σου,> δέδειχά σοι τοῦ εὑρεῖν σε τὴν ὁδὸν ἐν ᾗ πορεύσῃ ἐν αὐτῇ. 18 καὶ εἰ ἤκουσας τῶν ἐντολῶν μου, ἐγένετο ἂν ὡσεὶ ποταμὸς ἡ εἰρήνη σου, καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη σου ὡς κῦμα θαλάσσης. 19 καὶ ἐγένετο ἂν ὡσεὶ ἄμμος τὸ σπέρμα σου, καὶ τὰ ἔκγονα τῆς κοιλίας σου ὡς ὁ χοῦς τῆς γῆς· οὐδὲ νῦν οὐ μὴ ἐξολεθρευθῇς, οὐδὲ ἀπολεῖται τὸ ὄνομά σου ἐνώπιόν μου. 20 Ἔξελθε ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος φεύγων ἀπὸ τῶν Χαλδαίων· φωνὴν εὐφροσύνης ἀναγγείλατε, καὶ ἀκουστὸν γενέσθω τοῦτο, ἀπαγγείλατε ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς, λέγετε Ἐρρύσατο Κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ Ἰακώβ. 21 καὶ ἐὰν διψήσωσιν, διʼ ἐρήμου ἄξει αὐτούς, ὕδωρ ἐκ πέτρας ἐξάξει αὐτοῖς, σχισθήσεται πέτρα καὶ ῥυήσεται ὕδωρ, καὶ πίεται ὁ λαός μου. 22 οὐκ ἔστιν χαίρειν τοῖς ἀσεβέσιν, λέγει Κύριος.

49 1 Ἀκούσατέ μου, νῆσοι, καὶ προσέχετε, ἔθνη· διὰ χρόνου πολλοῦ στήσεται, λέγει Κύριος. ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου ἐκάλεσεν τὸ ὄνομά μου, 2 καὶ ἔθηκεν τὸ στόμα μου ὡσεὶ μάχαιραν ὀξεῖαν, καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν σκέπην τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ ἔκρυψέν με· ἔθηκέν με ὡς βέλος ἐκλεκτόν, καὶ ἐν τῇ φαρέτρᾳ αὐτοῦ ἐσκέπασέν με, 3 καὶ εἶπεν μοι Δοῦλός μου εἶ σύ, Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἐν σοὶ δοξασθήσομαι. 4 καὶ ἐγὼ εἶπα Κενῶς ἐκοπίασα, καὶ εἰς μάταιον καὶ εἰς οὐθὲν ἔδωκα τὴν ἰσχύν μου· διὰ τοῦτο ἡ κρίσις μου παρὰ Κυρίου, καὶ ὁ πόνος μου ἐναντίον τοῦ θεοῦ μου. 5 καὶ νῦν οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ πλάσας με ἐκ κοιλίας δοῦλον ἑαυτῷ τοῦ συναγαγεῖν τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ Ἰσραὴλ πρὸς αὐτόν Συναχθήσομαι καὶ δοξασθήσομαι ἐναντίον Κυρίου, καὶ ὁ θεός μου ἔσται μου ἰσχύς.6 καὶ εἶπέν μοι Μέγα σοί ἐστιν τοῦ κληθῆναί σε παῖδά μου, τοῦ στῆσαι τὰς φυλὰς Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὴν διασπορὰν τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψαι· ἰδοὺ τέθεικά σε εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν, τοῦ εἶναί σε εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς. 7 οὕτως λέγει Κύριος ὁ ῥυσάμενός σε ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ Ἁγιάσατε τὸν φαυλίζοντα τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, τὸν βδελυσσόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν τῶν δούλων τῶν ἀρχόντων· βασιλεῖς ὄψονται αὐτόν, καὶ ἀναστήσονται ἄρχοντες καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν αὐτῷ ἕνεκεν Κυρίου· ὅτι πιστός ἔστιν ὁ ἅγιος Ἰσραήλ, καὶ ἐξελεξάμην σε. 8 οὕτως λέγει Κύριος Καιρῷ δεκτῷ ἐπήκουσά σου, καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σωτηρίας ἐβοήθησά σοι, καὶ ἔδωκά σε εἰς διαθήκην ἐθνῶν, τοῦ καταστῆσαι τὴν γῆν καὶ κληρονομῆσαι κληρονομίαν ἐρήμου, 9 λέγοντα τοῖς ἐν δεσμοῖς Ἐξέλθατε, καὶ τοῖς ἐν τῷ σκότει ἀνακαλυφθῆναι. καὶ ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν βοσκηθήσονται, καὶ ἐν πάσαις ταῖς τρίβοις ἡ νομὴ αὐτῶν. 10 οὐ πεινάσουσιν, οὐδὲ διψήσουσιν, οὐδὲ μὴ πατάξει αὐτοὺς καύσων οὐδὲ ὁ ἥλιος, ἀλλὰ ὁ ἐλεῶν αὐτοὺς παρακαλέσει, καὶ διὰ πηγῶν ὑδάτων ἄξει αὐτούς· 11 καὶ θήσω πᾶν ὄρος εἰς ὁδὸν καὶ πᾶσαν τρίβον εἰς βόσκημα αὐτοῖς.

47 1 Come down, sit upon the ground, virgin daughter of Babylon; enter into the darkness, daughter of the Chaldaeans, for no longer shalt thou be any more called tender and delicate.

2 Take a millstone, grind meal, take off thy covering, uncover thy grey hairs, make bare the legs, pass through rivers.

3 Thy shame shall be uncovered, thy reproaches shall appear; I will do justice upon thee, no longer will I deliver thee over unto men,

4 Saith thy deliverer, the Lord of Hosts, his name is the Holy One of Israel.

5 Sit down in amazement, enter into the darkness, daughter of the Chaldaeans: no longer shalt thou be called the strength of a kingdom.

6 I was provoked at my people, thou defiledst mine inheritance: I gave (them) into thine hand, and thou showedst them no mercy; thou didst make the yoke of the elder very heavy.

7 And thou saidst, I shall be a princess for ever; thou perceivedst not this in thine heart, neither didst remember the last things.

8 But now hear this, delicate one, that sittest, that art confident, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and there is none other; I shall not sit as a widow, nor shall I come to know bereavement.

9 But now shall there come suddenly these two things in one day, widowhood and childlessness shall come suddenly upon thee in thy witchcraft; in the strength of thine enchantments exceeding greatly,

10 In the hope of thy wickedness; for thou saidst, I am, and there is no other: learn thou, that the understanding of these things and thy harlotry shall be thy shame: and thou saidst in thine heart, I am, and there is no other.

11 And there shall come upon thee destruction, and thou shalt not perceive it; a pit, and thou shalt fall into it: and there shall come misery upon thee, and thou shalt not be able to be clear of it: and there shall come destruction suddenly upon thee, and thou shalt not perceive it.

12 Stand now in thine enchantments, and thine abundant witchcraft, which thou didst learn from thy youth, to see if thou canst be helped:

13 Thou hast grown weary in thy counsels: let the astrologers of the heaven stand and save thee; let them who look on the stars declare to thee what is purposed to come upon thee.

14 Behold, all shall be burnt up as brushwood upon a fire, and they shall not deliver their soul from the flame; since thou hast coals of fire, sit thereon.

15 These shall be thy help: thou didst weary thyself in thy traffic from thy youth: each went astray by himself; but for thee shall be no salvation.

48 1 Hear ye this, house of Jacob, ye that are called by the name of Israel, and that have come forth from Judah, ye that swear by the name of the Lord God of Israel, calling him to mind not with truth, nor with righteousness,

2 And holding by the name of the holy city, and staying yourselves upon the God of Israel: the Lord of Hosts is his name.

3 Still have I declared the former things, and out of my mouth went they forth, and came to be heard: I did them suddenly, and they came to pass.

4 I perceive that thou art obstinate, and thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass.

5 And I declared to thee the things of old, before they came upon thee; I made it to be heard of thee, lest thou shouldest say, Mine idols have done it, and say, The graven and the molten images have commanded me.

6 Ye have heard all, and ye perceived not; but I have also made to be heard of thee the new things from henceforth which shall come to pass; and thou saidst not,

7 Now come they to pass, and not long since, and not in former days didst thou hear of them; lest thou shouldest say, Yea, I perceive them.

8 Thou didst neither perceive nor know, nor did I open thine ears from the beginning; for I perceived that thou wouldest utterly set them at nought, and thou shalt be called a transgressor even from the womb.

9 For my name’s sake will I show thee my wrath, and my glorious deeds will I bring upon thee, that I may not utterly destroy thee.

10 Behold, I have sold thee, not for silver; and I delivered thee out of the furnace of beggary.

11 For mine own sake will I do it unto thee; for my name is polluted, and my glory will I not give to another.

12 Hear me, Jacob, and Israel, whom I call; I am first, and I am for everlasting:

13 And mine hand laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand established the heaven; I will call them, and they shall stand together.

14 And all shall be gathered together, and shall hearken. Who declared these things unto them? Because I loved thee, I did this upon Babylon, thy will, to destroy the seed of the Chaldaeans.

15 I spake, I called him, led him, and made his way prosperous.

16 Draw near unto me, and hear ye this; from the beginning have I not spoken in secret, nor in a dark place of the earth; when it came to pass, there was I, and now the Lord hath sent me, and his spirit.

17 Thus saith the Lord, thy deliverer, the Holy One of Israel: <I am thy God,> I have shown to thee, that thou mayest find the way wherein thou shalt walk.

18 And if thou hadst hearkened to my commandments, thy peace should have been made as a river, and thy righteousness as a wave of the sea;

19 And thy seed should have become as sand, and the offspring of thy womb as the dust of the earth; nor shalt thou now be utterly destroyed, nor shall thy name perish before me.

20 Come thou forth from Babylon, fleeing from the Chaldaeans; proclaim ye the voice of joy, and let this be heard, report it to the end of the earth; say ye, The Lord hath delivered his people Jacob.

21 And if they be thirsty, he will bring them through the wilderness, he will bring water for them out of a rock; a rock shall be cleft, and water shall flow, and my people shall drink.

22 There is no rejoicing, saith the Lord, for the wicked.

49 1 Hearken to me, ye isles, and attend to me, ye nations; after long time shall it stand, saith the Lord. From my mother’s womb he called my name,

2 And set my mouth as a sharp sword, and under the shelter of his hand he hid me; he made me as a chosen arrow, and in his quiver he sheltered me,

3 And said unto me, Thou art my bondman, Israel, and in thee will I be glorified.

4 And I said, Vainly have I laboured, in vain and for nought have I given my strength; therefore my judgment is from the Lord, and my toil before my God.

5 And now thus saith the Lord, that formed me from the womb his bondslave, to gather together Jacob and Israel unto him, I will be gathered, and will be glorified before the Lord, and my God shall be my strength.

6 And he said to me, It is a great thing for thee, that thou mayest be called my servant, that thou mayest set up the tribes of Jacob, and turn again the dispersion of Israel; behold, I have set thee for a light of nations, that thou mayest be for salvation unto the end of the earth.

7 Thus saith the Lord thy deliverer, the God of Israel, Sanctify him that lightly esteemeth his soul, him that is held abominable by the nations, the slaves of the rulers; kings shall see him, and rulers shall rise up and worship him for the Lord’s sake: for faithful is the Holy One of Israel, and I chose thee.

8 Thus saith the Lord, In an acceptable time I heard thee, and in a day of salvation I helped thee, and gave thee for a covenant of nations, to establish the earth, and to cause to inherit an heritage of a desert,

9 Saying to them that are in bonds, Go forth, and (bidding) them that are in darkness be revealed. And in all the ways they shall feed, and in all paths is their pasture.

10 They shall not hunger nor thirst, neither shall burning heat nor sun smite them; but he that hath mercy on them shall comfort them, and lead them through springs of waters:

11 And I will turn every mountain into a way, and every path into a pasture for them.