†Rod Decker’s Koine Greek Grammar

May Prof. Rodney Decker rest in peace. One of his final contributions (gifts) to the Greek-learning community was this exciting new grammar, which I just received in the mail from Baker Academic yesterday:


Decker Grammar


Here is the description from Baker’s site:

This in-depth yet student-friendly introduction to Koine Greek provides a full grounding in Greek grammar, while starting to build skill in the use of exegetical tools. The approach, informed by twenty-five years of classroom teaching, emphasizes reading Greek for comprehension as opposed to merely translating it. The workbook is integrated into the textbook, enabling students to encounter real examples as they learn each new concept. The book covers not only New Testament Greek but also the wider range of Bible-related Greek (LXX and other Koine texts). It introduces students to reference tools for biblical Greek, includes tips on learning, and is supplemented by robust web-based resources through Baker Academic’s Textbook eSources, offering course help for professors and study aids for students.

Looks great! After a quick flip through, what stands out most is that the vocabulary lists at the end of each chapter include frequency counts for both the New Testament and the Septuagint.

I’ll post more later–find the book here.

From Scratch and Sniff Chip ‘N’ Dale to Jacob’s Travels

Scratch and Sniff feature available in iOS 9 only
Scratch and Sniff feature available in iOS 9 only


I had a “scratch and sniff” Chip ‘N’ Dale Rescue Rangers Spanish-language comic book when I first learned Spanish in high school.

I know–I can’t believe I just started a post with that sentence, either.

Silly as it was, the comic was an enjoyable way for me to practice reading a new language. I kept it for way too long and only in the last couple years threw it out. (The “sniff” of the front cover had long since stopped working.)

I’ve tried to step up my efforts lately in improving my biblical Hebrew reading, especially as I preach through Genesis in church. My now seven-year-old son has at times joined me in our Hebrew-learning adventures, always at his request. Most recently we worked together to review EKS Publishing’s enjoyable and accessible First Hebrew Primer.

Og the Terrible may be the more apt Hebrew-learning comparison to my Spanish-language Chip ‘N’ Dale comic. Og appears in a series of adventures featuring Prayerbook Hebrew and a dragon. (Might the Jewish/Christian apostle Paul have said Og helped the Scripture to be fire-breathed?)

JacobsTravelsCoverI’ve not read Og (yet!), but EKS Publishing has a series of Hebrew and English children’s books revolving around biblical characters.

The one at left–Jacob’s Travels–has been on our bookshelf for some time. We return to it on a fairly regular basis, sometimes reading the Hebrew text slowly, sometimes just reading the book in its English translation.

The back cover describes the book:

Jacob’s Travels begins and ends with Jacob encountering the Divine. This retelling of the story from Genesis, told in Hebrew and English, is a reminder of God’s constant presence in our lives. At a time when he feels most alone, this realization brings Jacob great comfort, inspiring one of the most memorable lines in the Bible: “Surely God is in this place and I did not know it!”

The translation is smooth and readable, with a more “literal” translation in the back of the book for those learning Hebrew. There’s also a glossary at the back for those who want to steer clear of the English and see how well they can do with just the Hebrew.

The book is probably better geared toward older children or even Hebrew-learning adults, as there is a high text-to-picture ratio.

It’s fun to read, though, and certainly more edifying than (no offense) the Rescue Rangers.

You can find the book here (Amazon) or here (EKS Publishing). EKS’s other children’s books are here.

A First-Year Textbook that Gets You Reading Hebrew A.S.A.P.

First Hebrew Primer“But when do we get to start reading Hebrew?”

The question was a near-refrain in my first semester of Hebrew class at seminary. After months of memorizing verbal paradigm charts and individual vocabulary words, I wondered he same thing.

I don’t mind a memorization-based or paradigm-based model for second language acquisition. I did fairly well in first learning Hebrew from the Pratico and Van Pelt Basics of Biblical Hebrew (see here and here).

But as I noted in my Pratico/Van Pelt reviews:

Some people disagree that paradigm memorization outside the context of a text or conversation is ideal pedagogy for language learning. … Even dead or ancient languages should be taught as “living languages,” proponents say. So some Hebrew textbooks encourage instead a text-based inductive approach.


Getting to Read Hebrew A.S.A.P.


The First Hebrew Primer (Third Edition, EKS Publishing) takes more of a reading-based inductive approach:

The goal of the Primer is to teach students to read and understand Biblical Hebrew as quickly as possible; therefore, the lessons emphasize recognition and translation – not memorization.

It succeeds well in this aim. Indeed, as soon as chapter 10 (out of 30), the student will be excited to begin her or his guided reading of Ruth:

Congratulations! You have learned enough Hebrew to begin reading the Bible—revised for your reading level. We have chosen Ruth because it is short, simple, and beautiful. In the beginning, the Hebrew text will be simplified, but as we progress, the text will approach the original. Before we finish the Book of Ruth, you will be reading the actual biblical text.

As soon as the Primer teaches the alphabet, it offers a host of a exercises for out-loud reading practice. The “Tall Tales” (folk tales) readings give students yet another chance to put into a reading context what they have learned. All the expected charts for nouns and verbs, vocabulary lists (with occurrence of 200x or more in the Hebrew Bible), and exercise sets are present throughout the book. But I especially appreciated its emphasis on reading early.


Updates to the Third Edition


What’s different in the Third Edition? Primarily, there is more grammatical detail offered.

This revised third edition introduces several new terms and clarifies grammatical points, but will look the same to long-time Primer readers. The key change we have made is the inclusion of new explanatory endnotes. Many readers have expressed a desire to deepen their knowledge of Biblical Hebrew, but have unanimously endorsed the clear, uncomplicated tone of the Primer. We have responded by adding these optional supplementary notes. Students may read the notes to enrich their understanding of Hebrew grammar or concentrate solely on the main text. Either way, the Primer provides a sound foundation for more advanced studies in the Hebrew Bible.

One gets the feeling that in the absence of those clarifying notes, some of the grammatical concepts are oversimplified. So the additional nuances expressed in the endnotes are imperative for laying a good foundation for later Hebrew learning. EKS Publishing uses its own name for some grammatical terms (“Word Pair” instead of “construct chain” and “regular infinitive” instead of “infinitive construct”).

I can see this being something a student would need to re-learn if she or her goes further in learning Hebrew grammar; I’m not sure the level of simplification here is always helpful or necessary. (And the lack of an index makes it difficult to trace discussion throughout the book of a given concept.) All the same, page 368 provides a “Guide to Grammatical Terms” with a table of “Our Name” and the “Traditional Name” for key concepts.


The Primer for Kids?


Hebrew Learning


Though the book is for “adult beginners,” my six-year-old son, whose Hebrew-learning adventures I have chronicled here, took an interest in The First Hebrew Primer once he saw it on the shelf. Chapter 3 (“The Sheva, Odd Vowels, and the Dagesh”) was particularly helpful, as the sheva had been giving him trouble. The Primer explains how to pronounce the sheva depending on where in a word it is:

  • Sheva at the beginning of a word: “always pronounced with a short, slurred sound”
  • Sheva at the end of a word: “always a silent vowel, and it is not pronounced at all”
  • Sheva in the middle of a word: “When a sheva appears alone in the middle of a word, it usually falls at the end of a syllable and is not pronounced.” (An endnote at this point offers additional illuminating detail.)

My son did astutely ask, “How do I correct myself if I get something wrong?” So I’ve gone through the Primer with him, rather than letting him use the Primer much on his own (even though he can read just fine). There is a companion audio CD available, which has to be purchased separately; self-guided learners will need it to be able to take full advantage of the oral exercises in the Primer.


Concluding Evaluation


The Hebrew font in The First Hebrew Primer is clear and easy to read. The exercises strike a nice balance between appropriateness for each lesson and being challenging. For example, in chapter 7 (“The Perfect Tense”), there is this:

EKS First Hebrew Primer

If you prefer an interactive, digital edition, Accordance Bible Software has a Primer package available for purchase here. The Accordance edition includes the primer, the answer key (otherwise a separate purchase), and more than an hour’s worth of accompanying audio. In other words, Accordance puts everything needed in one integrated and easy-to-use place.

Would I use The First Hebrew Primer as a textbook for a first-year Hebrew student? Definitely–despite the occasional lack of nuance in the grammatical explanations, its emphasis on oral practice, its engaging exercises, its inclusions of basic paradigms, and especially its introduction of reading early on make it a solid option for a first-year Hebrew text. As an added bonus, there are plenty of English to Hebrew exercises (and even an English-Hebrew Glossary), which will go a long way to help the student solidify Hebrew comprehension.


Thanks to EKS Publishing for the review copy of the Primer and answer key, offered for the purposes of this review, but with no expectation as to my review’s content. The publisher’s book page is here (answer key here). It’s also on Amazon (affiliate link) here (answer key here).

What I’m Reading to Keep My Greek and Hebrew Fresh

To keep my Greek and Hebrew active, right now I’m alternating between two books (and enjoying them both):


Prepositions and Theology


Murray J. Harris’s Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament (Zondervan, 2012).

Without accepting a so-called “theology of prepositions,” Harris’s guide is readable and illuminating. I found his exegetical guide to Colossians and Philemon quite helpful. Here is a sample of Prepositions and Theology.


Jonah Handbook on Hebrew Text


W. Dennis Tucker Jr.’s Jonah: A Handbook on the Hebrew Text (Baylor University Press, 2006).

I like this series already. I’m halfway through Jonah and finding Tucker’s handbook a welcome companion.

I’ll post a review of each when I finish.

Translating Jude Clause by Clause

Translating Jude Clause by Clause

It’s been fun to watch the Baylor Handbook series progress, with volumes on both the Hebrew Text and the Greek Text. Not only do we who are currently engaged in Hebrew and Greek reading have amazing technological tools at our fingertips, but there are also series like Baylor’s that focus specifically on the original languages.

Herbert W. Bateman IV inaugurates a new series of his own, via his Cyber-Center for Biblical Studies, with Translating Jude Clause by Clause: An Exegetical Guide. More volumes of these EBooks for Translating the New Testament have been projected to release in 2014 and 2015.

Jude is a difficult book. It receives far less teaching and preaching attention than most New Testament books. It has clear references to “apocryphal” literature, about which Protestants, in discussions on canonicity, seem to feel compelled to say, “Jude is not citing such as Scripture.”

And the Greek is tough. Paul’s letters are easier! In Jude’s 25 verses, there are more than a dozen hapax legomena (words that occur only once in a body of literature, here understood as the New Testament). Because words are best defined by their context and usage, this doesn’t give the student of the New Testament much to go by for understanding these words.

So a guide to Jude’s Greek text is welcomed by anyone who wants to work through that book. In this post I review Bateman’s Translating Jude. I was eager to receive and work my way through the book, since I found Bateman’s Charts on the Book of Hebrews to be “a top-notch resource for an important biblical book.”

What Is Translating Jude Clause by Clause?

There are three primary sections in Translating Jude Clause by Clause:

  1. Introduction
  2. Clausal Outlines for Translation
  3. Clausal Outlines Translated and Syntax Explained

1. Introduction. Bateman’s first section packs a punch. After I reading it I felt very well set up to begin working my way through Jude’s Greek. In the introduction Bateman explains the layout of his uniquely structured book, includes a substantive section on independent clauses (of three types) vs. dependent clauses (of four types), and suggests “Tips for Translating Jude.” That last section explores some unique characteristics of Jude’s style, such as his frequent use of participles, long sentences, and parallel constructions (among other features).

2. Clausal Outlines for Translation. Here is where the reader will do the work of translating Jude. Bateman understands Jude as consisting of five main sections (vv. 1-2, vv. 3-4, vv. 5-16, vv. 17-23, and vv. 24-25), which is then further broken down into nine total passages, according to which Translating Jude is set up.

In addition to the robust introduction to Jude, each section of the clausal outlines begins with Contextual Orientation to the passage, which I found to be the most consistently excellent part of Bateman’s work. It is “a summary statement based on Jude’s flow of thought in order to provide some contextual orientation to the Greek paragraph to be translated.” It delivers each time.

After that there is the Greek Text for Verbal Recognition, where Bateman reprints the Greek text of Jude so that readers can mark it up to identify the various verbs and verbal forms.

Then there is the Clausal Outline for Translating Jude. Here Bateman spaces out and appropriately indents the various clauses in a passage so that the reader can visualize the flow of Jude’s thought. There’s plenty of space to write in one’s own translation, too. Here is a screenshot from the sample pdf of the interactive edition (i.e., you can fill in the blanks by typing).

Translating Jude

3. Clausal Outlines Translated and Syntax Explained. The final section serves as a sort of answer key for the section above. Bateman shows the clausal structure of Jude again (with indentations), this time with his English translation below the Greek. His “Syntax Explained” offers explanation along the lines of “grammatical function, syntactical function, and semantical function.” Bateman often cites and points to other Greek grammars, which helps enable further study.

What I Found Helpful

The book is highly interactive throughout. Even in a static, print book, I often had the feeling that I was being coached through Jude by an experienced and knowledgeable Greek professor. For those who haven’t used clausal outlining, I recommend it! Bateman walks the reader through the method well.

I especially appreciated how much the third section went from grammatical observation to exegetical insight. For example, Bateman notes the use of a constative aorist in Jude 11. He concludes:

Jude alludes to the behavior of the godless as a whole or in a summary fashion. Thus the godless have made their bed and currently lie in it.

The introduction offered far more than I expected from a book of this length. In addition to the insights noted above, Bateman includes a number of grammatical summary charts in the introduction that I found myself referring to often as I worked my way through Jude.

What I Found Not as Helpful

The user of Translating Jude will have to overlook an unexpectedly large number of misprints and typos, as well as a couple of Greek errors. I found this to be a major distraction that detracted from what is otherwise a good book. Fortunately, I understand that future printings will include corrections. (And the electronic version of Translating Jude will be easy to correct and update.)

By about verse 8 or so of the “Syntax Explained” section, I started to experience the format of the translation notes as repetitive. Perhaps their predictability serves a value–e.g., a Greek verb receives a parsing, its lexical form is noted, there is a brief BDAG gloss, and then there are sentences beginning with, “Syntactically,” “Semantically,” and, “Thus,” each in turn. But something that felt a little less boilerplate would have been more engaging, at least to me personally. Others may not find it an issue.

Finally, simply because it seemed remarkable to me, I was surprised at Bateman’s proposal for understanding the “fault finders” and “grumblers” of verse 16: “two words that might be summed up into one: bitching. They bitch regularly.” It could be just my own sensitivities, but I think that word has enough potentially derogatory connotations (surely unintended here) that leaving it out of a commentary and suggesting another English word would have been better. I otherwise appreciated the English translations.

Concluding Evaluation

Of course one wants to know how Translating Jude compares to the Baylor Handbook on the Greek Text series, especially since Baylor has a volume by Peter H. Davids on II Peter and Jude (review forthcoming!). Davids does not aim to do what Bateman does in terms of clausal outlining and written-out reader translations–Bateman is more interactive in that sense. Davids is more thorough when it comes to explaining the Greek text. Bateman does note that his translation notes focus on verbs and verbals, but Davids has more detail overall, even in defining and explaining the usage of various verbs.

Bateman writes that Translating Jude “is not a commentary. It is a tool designed to help translate and visualize Jude’s train of thought.” With its emphasis on clausal outlines–and with how clearly they are presented and explained–the book succeeds in its aim.

Apart from my (hopefully constructive) criticisms noted in the section above, I’d recommend this book to students of Greek, especially any who have become over-reliant on using Bible software for parsing and translating. Anyone whose Greek or grammar is rusty will also benefit from the clear introduction to Translating Jude and its verse-by-verse explanations.

Thanks to the Cyber-Center for Biblical Studies for the review copy. Prof. Bateman’s other books are here. You can find Translating Jude Clause by Clause at Amazon here (affiliate link). A sample pdf of the book is here.

O Lord or Oh, Lord?

CommaWhen I was a college worship director for a couple of years, I put together and helped edit a lot of lyrics on PowerPoint. One recurring question I had was: Is it O Lord or Oh, Lord?

By default I found myself using the first, though I was never really sure why (I thought it looked better).

According to this articleO Lord is correct, when addressing a petition, prayer, or other saying to God.

One thing I’m still stuck on, though–if is proper for use with vocatives, why is there not also a comma after it?

A Short Note on God’s First Greek Words

The Greek of Genesis 1:3 reads,

καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Γενηθήτω φῶς. καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς.

In English it reads, “And God said, ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light.”

The Septuagint straightforwardly translates the Hebrew, which is:

ויאמר אלהים יהי אור ויהי־אור

The Greek καὶ is versatile. The first καὶ in Genesis 1:3 is connected to what precedes it in 1:2 (darkness over the deep), but not necessarily inextricably so. In other words, one could leave it untranslated when going into English, with 1:3 beginning just, “God said….” The second  καὶ in 1:3, however, seems to be more closely related to what precedes it. “And there was light” follows immediately upon God’s calling for light. God said it, and it happened.

Susan Brayford, in her LXX Genesis commentary (Septuagint Commentary Series, Brill) writes:

God’s first words bring light into being in order to counter the darkness that was over the earth. In the first words attributed to God, LXX-G establishes a formulaic speech pattern that continues throughout the chapter, namely, a verb in the third person imperative (let x be), followed by ‘and,’ and concludes with a verb in the aorist (and x was). The pattern, similar to that in the MT noticed by Westermann and others, not only represents God as an orderly creator, but more importantly, as a powerful creator whose very words accomplish actions.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer has much to say about this in his Creation and Fall lectures on Genesis 1-3. On Tuesday I’ll post about his take on the link between God’s speech and the resulting creation.

Grammar of Septuagint Greek

Grammar of Septuagint Greek

A book that I desire to delve into more deeply is Conybeare and Stock’s Grammar of Septuagint Greek. The grammar itself is short, and still leaves to be desired a fuller grammar of Septuagint Greek. But the selected readings have Septuagint text with reading helps at the bottom of each page, and make for a nice bridge into reading Old Testament Greek. The readings section looks like this (click to enlarge):

From the reading on Joseph
From the reading on Joseph

You can access the whole book for free (and legally) here. The format there is a little unwieldy, so you might also consider checking it out in print (affiliate link).

The grammar is pretty dense, and feels sparse in places, but I haven’t had a chance to examine the book thoroughly yet. The selected readings have helped me in improving my Greek, though. It’s recommended reading on this Septuagint Sunday.


Review of Luke (Baylor Handbook on the Greek Text)

Luke Baylor

Luke: A Handbook on the Greek Text is part of an expanding series by Baylor University Press that walks a reader through each word, phrase, and verse of the Greek New Testament. Of the series Baylor writes:

What distinguishes this series from other available resources is the detailed and comprehensive attention paid to the Greek text of the New Testament. Each handbook provides a convenient reference tool that explains the syntax of the biblical text, offers guidance for deciding between competing semantic analyses, deals with text-critical questions that have a significant bearing on how the text is understood, and addresses questions relating to the Greek text that are frequently overlooked or ignored by standard commentaries, all in a succinct and accessible manner.

The Luke volume is some 800 pages of lexical, grammatical, and syntactical detail. Language nerds will love it. The Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament series (BHGNT) “is designed to guide new readers and seasoned scholars alike through the intricacies of the Greek text.”

The Approach

Luke begins with a 15-page Introduction, with the following section headings:

  • Luke’s Style: “a mix of styles” and “higher on the literary scale than Matthew, Mark, or John”
  • Verbal Aspect: aorist tense verbs encode perfective aspect, generally used for mainline narrative events; imperfect tense verbs encode imperfective aspect, generally used for background events; present tense (imperfective aspect) is for quoted speech… but these are “tendencies only, not hard and fast linguistic rules”
  • The Use of Conjunctions at the Discourse Level: the authors focus here particularly on καί and δέ, which “serve distinct functions that assist readers in tracking the flow and status of information through large blocks of text”
  • Participles: primarily context (not just syntax) “drives the analysis” throughout the handbook
  • Word Order: the Greek verb defaults to a position at the start of a sentence; anything preceding it is “fronted” (which does not, the authors note, always imply emphasis)

Additionally, the Series Introduction addresses deponency, a label often given to middle/passive verbs with “active” meanings, but considered now by a number of scholars (and by the BHGNT series) to be an unhelpful concept “leading to imprecise readings of the text.” As a result,

users of the BHGNT will discover that verbs that are typically labeled “deponent,” including some with -θη- morphology, tend to be listed as “middle.”

The body of the handbook offers an English translation of each section of biblical text. Next there is the full Greek text of a given verse. Then follows a word-by-word (and/or phrase-by-phrase) analysis of the Greek text. One advantage to this structure is that, without having to have recourse to any other books, the user of this handbook has the full Greek and English texts of Luke in front of them.

There is also useful material at the back of the handbook: a glossary of nearly 50 grammatical terms and concepts, a bibliography, a grammar index (with grammatical concepts listed in English and words listed in Greek), and an author index. If I wanted to trace Luke’s use of the double accusative, for example, I’d see a list of verse references in the grammar index for further study.

An Example Passage: Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10

Luke 19:1-10 tells the well-known story of Zacchaeus’s encounter with Jesus. This handbook volume does comment on what a Greek phrase might “literally” mean, yet not (thankfully) to the point of making its English translation overly wooden, at least not on a regular basis. The translation is generally smooth, with additional comments on meaning throughout the notes.

Luke 19:1, for example, reads, “After entering Jericho, Jesus was passing through the city.” The handbook entry on that verse is as follows:

19:1 Καὶ εἰσελθὼν διήρχετο τὴν Ἰεριχώ.

Καὶ. The conjunction closely links this pericope with the preceding one, while the rest of the verse marks a shift in scene.
εἰσελθὼν. Aor act ptc masc nom sg εἰσέρχομαι (temporal).
διήρχετο. Impf mid ind 3rd sg διέρχομαι. The first three verses supply background information for the narrative that follows using imperfect verbs and equative clauses (διήρχετο; ἦν, v. 2; ἐζήτει, ἠδύνατο, v. 3).
τὴν Ἰεριχώ. Accusative complement of διήρχετο. Lit. “entering, he was passing through Jericho.”

Sometimes the entries are not much more than parsing, with a brief description of function (as in εἰσελθὼν, above). Other times there is more detail, as in διήρχετο. This reflects a concern throughout the handbook with discourse analysis: the authors are regularly asking (and answering) the question, “Why did Luke choose these words here? Why this verb tense? Why this position? What does it do for the narrative and the reader-hearer’s experience of it?”

Though Luke is not meant to be a full-on commentary, the authors nonetheless interact with other literature (commentaries and grammars, especially). For example, on 19:3’s “he was short in stature” (Greek: τῇ ἡλικίᾳ μικρὸς ἦν), they have this note:

The meaning of the phrase is debated. It could refer to Zacchaeus’ age (Green, 669–70) or his physical stature (Fitzmyer, 2:1223). The phrase probably not only refers to Zacchaeus’ height, but also serves to characterize him in a negative fashion (see Parsons 2001, 50–57; 2006, 97–108).

Whether or not one agrees with the conclusion (that Luke is talking about height), Culy, Parsons, and Stigall present the options, give bibliographical information, and–most important–say what the function of this phrase is in Luke’s story. Similarly, the authors consider textual variants where they would impact the meaning of the text.

What Luke: A Handbook on the Greek Text Is Not

This is a specialized work and does not aim to situate each passage in its literary or historical context. For example, when I was preaching on the Parable of the “Good Samaritan”, I turned to that passage. There is no introductory comment that sets it up, neither there nor at the beginning of chapter 10. There is a note that ἰδοὺ “is sometimes used to introduce a major character in a narrative, as here,” but that’s it.

Since the commentary does not set out to provide literary context or structural outlines, it would be unfair to criticize it for not doing that. The reader should be aware that this book is really true to its series title: it’s a handbook (that at times feels like a collection of notes) on the Greek text. Given that even technical, Greek-oriented commentaries pass over some words and concepts in the Greek text, there is definitely a place for a book like this. Those who want to go in-depth with the Greek (word-by-word and phrase-by-phrase) will find many riches to appreciate here, as I have.

Even so, I was pleasantly surprised by some places (i.e., the difficult Luke 18:7) where Culy, Parsons, and Stigall did offer insight into how to understand a passage as a whole.

The handbook will not replace a good lexicon. Some words simply have parsing information given, with little to no elaboration on the word’s meaning. To be truly comprehensive in this regard would double the size of the book, so it’s an understandable decision. Just keep BDAG close by as you read. That said, in this handbook you will get detail even down to the level of Greek accents!

Concluding Evaluation

The series preface says:

Readers of traditional commentaries are sometimes dismayed by the fact that even those that are labeled “exegetical” or “critical” frequently have little to say about the mechanics of the Greek text, and all too often completely ignore the more perplexing grammatical issues.

I have definitely felt this way as a commentary reader and user (and wanna-be Greek nerd). To have a handbook (albeit one that requires large hands to hold!) devoted to the Greek and its grammar is a great aid to anyone wanting to maintain or deepen their use of biblical languages. The lexical analysis (with sensitivity to larger New Testament context), grammatical insights, and linguistic nuances make for a smart and challenging companion to the Greek text. I’m excited to see more coming from this series.

N.B.: I have also reviewed Malachi in the similar Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Text series, in two parts: here and here.

Thanks to Baylor University Press for the review copy. You can find the book’s product page here. It is on Amazon (affiliate link) here, where you can also “look inside” the book.

The Disappearance of the Vocative Comma

And now for something completely different…

Welcome Students

The Oxford Comma is one thing. I support it and will for all time. But what about the disappearance of the ill-fated vocative comma?

When addressed to a person or group of people, a sentence that names said person(s) ought to have a comma in place like this:

Michael, take out the trash.

Hi, Betty.

Welcome, tourists!

But it seems to be going by the wayside. You’re hard-pressed to find, “Michael take out the trash” but “Hi Betty” and “Welcome tourists” are fairly ubiquitous. (And technically not correct.)

However, many say that conventions of grammar, usage, punctuation, etc. do and should follow how people actually speak, write, and use words.

So will the Vocative Comma go the way of the Oxford Comma?

Reader, I hope not.